1300 - 1600

The Late Middle Ages were a period of a rising middle class in the cities, and a monetary economy. The era was affected by the disastrous aftermath of the plague, which cost the lives of a third of the European population. The depopulation led to rebellions which caused transformations in the social structures.

Late Middle Ages and early Modern Ages

Guz 1300-1600 Diorama

The Town

Guz 1300-1600 Die Stadt 2

With a flourishing trade, the town grows ever more prosperous. A considerably larger nave bears witness of this wealth. Craftsmen are organizing themselves in guilds. By now, the town has a pharmacy, a cloth mill, and mirror makers. Pottery, but also salts to preserve foods are being traded.

Hygiene

Guz 1300-1600 Die Stadt 2

Still, livestock is being kept within the town walls, and there’s no canalization. Therefore, the hygienic conditions are catastrophic. There’s a high mortality, and the plague is raging. The desperation of common people can only be relieved with the charity of the wealthy.

The Church

Guz 1300-1600 Die Kirche

The Church has a strong influence on urban life. The redemption of sins upon payments to the Church is practiced on an ever larger scale.

Guz 1300-1600 Martin Luther

A reformer in Martin Luther’s tradition is demanding the translation of church services into the mother tongue of the believers, and the prohibition of the sale of indulgences.

Guz 1300-1600 Selbstgeisselung

All-in-all it’s a period of religious wars. People are being accused of, and pursued for heresy. Different expressions of religious zeal, for example self-flagellation are prevalent.

Craftsmanship

Guz 1300-1600 Das Handwerk

In a printing shop the first books are being produced.

Guz 1300-1600 Das Handwerk 2

Independent from the sovereign, first craft businesses have established in the countryside, for example a leather manufacture, or a timber mill.

The Peasants and the Lord

Guz 1300-1600 Die Bauern Und Der Burgherr

In order to counteract frequent crop failures, the three-field crop rotation is being introduced. From their lord, peasants receive minimum wage for the farm work they are obliged to carry out for their sovereign.