5500 until 2200 B.C. - Neolithicum

The Neolithicum is the era in human history marking the beginning of the transition from a lifestyle of hunters and gatherers to settlers and agrarians.

 

Neolithic habitation

People are not living as roaming nomads any longer, but have settled in small communities. For their protection, they have established settlements surrounded by palisade trenches, where they are living in naves together with their livestock.


People are no longer mere hunters and gatherers. Nowadays, they also live from agriculture and fishing.


Commerce

Settlers are largely self-sufficient, but it's already the time of first trading transactions. Contact to other people and tribes results from bartering surplus goods, or goods not needed for self-sufficience. Metals, furs, and jewelery beads are popular trading goods. There are larger trading routes all across Europe, already.


Banishment

Community members offending against the interests of the group are being sent across the furt into the impenetrable primeval forest. Being banished without shelter and protection,  the offenders are exposed to certain death.

 


The Forest

The virgin forest cannot be utlized by Neolithic people, and it is considered as dangerous.

 


Burial

When a member of the community has died, he is being buried, for example in a stone cist grave.

 


The rescue fort

When being threatened by another tribe or clan, people are taking shelter in a refuge fort surrounded by palisades on a nearby hill.

It is also a place of ceremonial gatherings, opened in the Eastern and Western direction. People have knowledge of nature and the seasons. They closely watch the course of sun, moon, and stars.